Der letzte EM-Viertelfinal zwischen Frankreich und Island wird im Pariser Vorort St. Denis ausgetragen. Die besten Bilder hier zum Durchklicken!. Frankreich trifft im Viertelfinale der UEFA EURO in Frankreich am 3. Juli auf Island. Anstoß ist um Uhr in Saint-Denis Paris . Suche springen. Dieser Artikel behandelt die isländische Nationalmannschaft bei der Fußball-Europameisterschaft in Frankreich . In der unmittelbaren EM-Vorbereitung verloren die Isländer am 1. Juni in Oslo gegen Norwegen () .
Es geht gegen den Abstieg aus der Nations League. Vor allem die Besetzung der Offensive wird spannend. Anlässlich des Guinness-Weltrekord-Tages hat ein japanischer Seilspringer eine neue Höchstmarke gesetzt und damit sich selbst überboten.
Was als Aufstand gegen Spanien begann und als Konflikt zweier Weltmächte endete: Das Amsterdamer Rijksmuseum erzählt die Geschichte des achtzigjährigen Freiheitskampfes der Niederlande.
Ein Sieg würde das Achtelfinale näherrücken lassen. Sie verpasst damit den Einzug ins Halbfinale und kann für diese Saison ihre Tennisschläger einpacken.
Best Ager - Für Senioren und Angehörige. Fortschritte in der Neurologie. Suche Suche Login Logout. Edition Die digitale Ausgabe der F.
Zu lange ist das Bedürfnis nach nationaler Selbstvergewisserung verunglimpft worden. Es ist gut, dass der Bundespräsident an einem 9.
November dem aufgeklärten Patriotismus das Wort redet. Ein Nachfolger für den scheidenden Präsidenten des Bundesverfassungsgerichtes ist gefunden.
Stephan Harbarth wird nach F. Rüder Umgang mit der Belegschaft: Die irische Fluggesellschaft setzt ihre Mitarbeiter mit Mahnschreiben unter Druck. Unterdessen beschlagnahmt Frankreich eines ihrer Flugzeuge in Bordeaux.
Immer auf dem Laufenden Sie haben Post! Abonnieren Sie unsere FAZ. Islles de Francia ast ; Categoria: Insel Frankreich de ; Kategoria: Insulae Franciae la ; Luokka: Isole della Francia it ; Categorie: Eiland van Vrankryk vls ; Kategooria: Ynysoedd Ffrainc cy ; Kategorija: Francijas salas lv ; Ronney: Ellanyn ny Frank gv ; Kategorii: Francijan sared vep ; Categoria: Otoki Francije sl ; Kategorya: Mga pulo ng Pransiya tl ; Kategori: Frankrikes öar sv ; Categorie: Frans eiland nl ; Kategori: Pulau di Perancis id ; Kategoria:
island em frankreich -Durch drei folgende Siege, darunter im Rückspiel gegen die Tschechen und in den Niederlanden, übernahmen sie aber wieder die Tabellenführung. Nach Käfigskandal in Vegas: Halb Island macht den Wikinger-Ruf. Frankreich - Island 5: Nun eine oder wenige Meinungen von "Spaltern", "Eskalierern", die die Welt nun wirklich nicht braucht, hochzuspielen, ist einfach nur erbärmlich!!! Heimir Hallgrimmson, der isländische Co-Trainer, erklärt seine Strategie: Der schlenzt die Kugel aber ein gutes Stück am linken Pfosten vorbei. Die Konjakwurzel ist das neue Superfood. Etwas sehr Besonderes ist entstanden. Ende Januar folgte eine 2: Bayern frankfurt of Pennsylvania Press. März verwarfen Schottland und Wales ihren Plan für eine gemeinsame Bewerbung aufgrund der zu hohen Kosten. Parlaments-Vizepräsident Igor Lebedew sagte jedoch, die russischen Hooligans hätten die Ehre Russlands verteidigt und sollten so weitermachen. UEFA, abgerufen am The abolition of handlungsvertreter and male universal suffrageboth briefly enacted during the French Revolution were re-enacted in Originally applied to the Beste Spielothek in Lüchtenborg finden Frankish Empirethe name "France" comes from the Latin " Francia ", or "country of the Franks ". In other projects Wikimedia Commons Wikipedia. Play our new slot games this June! | Euro Palace Casino Blog im Februar sicherten sich die beiden Fernsehanstalten die Übertragungsrechte für kolportierte Millionen Euro. Corsica and a small part of the territory exclusive club casino bonus code the mediterranean basin lies in the Csa and Csb zones. In der Finalrunde kamen jeweils auslosung champions league 2019 die Sieger weiter; für die unterlegenen Mannschaften war valencia vs real madrid Turnier beendet. Maurice Ravel and Claude Debussy are the most prominent neue online casinos oktober 2019 associated with Impressionist music. Louis XV — ".
Frankreich island em -Unabhängig davon, warum sollte man sowas nicht kopieren? In unserem Guide erfahren Sie, wo Sie das Endspiel live mitverfolgen können. Der irre Plan für Klitschko vs. Gegen die Engländer gab es erst zwei Länderspiele: Aron Gunnarsson wischte sich die Tränen aus den Augen und schmetterte den Fans ein letztes "Huh" entgegen. Laurent Koscielny erobert die Kugel in der eigenen Hälfte und schickt Antoine Griezmann auf die Reise, der mit Tempo durchs Zentrum zieht und nach rechts abgibt, wo Moussa Sissoko jedoch den passenden Zeitpunkt für seine Flanke verpasst, sodass Frankreich gegen die wieder sortierte isländische Abwehr wieder hintenrum aufbauen muss. Genauer, gerade mal fünf Wochen sind es. In der unmittelbaren EM-Vorbereitung verloren die Isländer am 1. Kommentare Alle Kommentare anzeigen. Durch drei folgende Siege, darunter im Rückspiel gegen die Tschechen und in den Niederlanden, übernahmen sie aber wieder die Tabellenführung. Ich habe es genossen, mit Ausnahme der ersten 45 Minuten heute. Paul Pogba trifft per Kopf zum 2: Weitere Testspiele wurden im Januar auf der arabischen Halbinsel bestritten, wo Island am Juni um Giroud eröffnet nach 12 Minuten den Torreigen. Sorgt Island wieder für einen Paukenschlag? Aber typisch für diesen Sport. Was ist aus den "How I met your mother"-Stars geworden? Die Isländer nehmen ihr Aus hingegen mit Stolz und Humor. Mit einem starken Pass schickt Blaise Matuidi den startenden Olivier Giroud in die Spitze, der gleich zwei Verteidiger hinter sich lässt, in die linke Strafraumhälfte zieht und das Leder mit links im langen Eck versenkt. Nach dem dritten Tor:
Juni als auch des Finales am Juli bestimmt worden. Dagegen hatten die Gruppendritten der Gruppen A und B mehrere Tage zu warten, bis die endgültige Entscheidung feststand.
Gespielt wurde in sechs Vierergruppen, wobei die Gruppenersten und -zweiten und die vier besten Gruppendritten sich für das Achtelfinale qualifizierten.
Ab dem Achtelfinale wurde im K. Es wurden 51 statt bisher 31 Spiele ausgetragen. Die Endrunde wurde daher von drei auf vier Wochen verlängert.
Die Gruppenphase fand vom Juni statt, die Finalphase begann am Wenn am Ende der Gruppenphase zwischen mehreren Mannschaften Punktgleichheit herrschte, wurde nach folgender Reihenfolge vorgegangen: Hätte dieses Vorgehen wiederum keine Entscheidung herbeigeführt, wären die Kriterien e bis h angewendet worden:.
Voraussetzung wäre aber gewesen, dass keine weitere Mannschaft derselben Gruppe nach Abschluss der Gruppenspiele dieselbe Punktezahl gehabt hätte; wäre dies der Fall gewesen, wären die oben aufgeführten Kriterien a bis h angewandt worden.
Die Reihenfolge der Kriterien war laut den Regularien wie folgt: Einzelne Gelbe Karten wurden nach dem Viertelfinale gestrichen.
Bei einer Roten Karte war der Spieler ebenfalls automatisch für die folgende Partie gesperrt, wobei die Kontroll- und Disziplinarkommission eine höhere Strafe aussprechen konnte.
Gastgeber Frankreich war für die Endrunde im Sommer automatisch qualifiziert. Die restlichen 23 Plätze wurden von September bis November in mehreren Qualifikationsgruppen mit fünf bzw.
Die Auslosung der Gruppen fand am Dezember in Paris. Fünf der 24 teilnehmenden Mannschaften nahmen zum ersten Mal an einer Europameisterschaftsendrunde teil: Österreich und die Ukraine qualifizierten sich erstmals sportlich für eine EM, hatten jedoch bereits an der EM beziehungsweise als Gastgeber teilgenommen.
Vier der fünf Debütanten erreichten das Achtelfinale, nur Albanien scheiterte knapp aufgrund der schlechteren Tordifferenz.
Die Auslosung der Endrunde in Frankreich fand am Dezember nach der Qualifikation statt. Sechs Schweizer Nationalspieler haben familiäre Beziehungen zu Albanien oder Kosovo, während zehn albanische Team-Mitglieder in der Schweiz geboren wurden oder dort aufwuchsen.
Dabei wurden mindestens 35 Menschen verletzt, ein englischer Fan lebensgefährlich. Beteiligt waren vor allem englische und russische, aber auch französische Randalierer.
Das Spiel Ukraine — Nordirland musste in der Minute für etwa vier Minuten wegen Starkregen und Hagel unterbrochen werden. Im Spiel Tschechien — Kroatien gab es über neun Minuten Nachspielzeit, da es gegen Ende der zweiten Halbzeit zu minutenlangen Ausschreitungen im kroatischen Fanblock kam.
Die Zuordnung der für das Achtelfinale qualifizierten Gruppendritten zu den vier vorher festgelegten Achtelfinalspielen mit Gruppendritten hing davon ab, aus welchen Gruppen sich die Dritten qualifizierten.
Diese berücksichtigt, dass Mannschaften, die bereits in der Vorrunde gegeneinander spielten, gegebenenfalls nicht vor dem Halbfinale erneut aufeinander treffen.
In der Finalrunde kamen jeweils nur die Sieger weiter; für die unterlegenen Mannschaften war das Turnier beendet.
Weitere Platzierungen wurden nicht ausgespielt. Die Portugiesen schafften es zuerst nicht, ordentlich in das Spiel zu finden, was sich durch die Hektik im portugiesischen Spiel zeigte.
Dazu kam noch, dass Cristiano Ronaldo nach einem heftigen Tacklingversuch durch Payet 8. Minute ausgewechselt werden musste, woraufhin Nani die Kapitänsbinde übernahm.
Innerhalb der ersten Hälfte konnte sich Portugal jedoch wieder ordnen und bekam mehr Kontrolle in sein Spiel. Frankreich wies eine geringe Chancenverwertung auf.
Während die Franzosen in der Verlängerung kaum mehr in Erscheinung traten, setzten die Portugiesen seit der Minute ihr Offensivspiel fort: Somit entschied Portugal, angetrieben durch den verletzten, von der Seitenlinie dirigierenden Ronaldo, das Finale für sich.
Zur Siegerehrung übergab Nani die Kapitänsbinde wieder an Ronaldo. Der Turniersieger Portugal errang im Laufe des Turniers einen einzigen Sieg innerhalb der regulären Spielzeit von 90 Minuten, und zwar beim 2: Einen solchen Fall hatte es seit Einführung der Gruppenphase im Jahr , die mit der Erhöhung auf mehr als vier teilnehmende Mannschaften verbunden war, noch nicht gegeben.
Zu diesen besten Torschützen mit mindestens drei Toren kommen zwölf weitere mit je zwei Toren und 57 weitere mit je einem Tor.
Torschützenkönig des gesamten Wettbewerbs wurde der Pole Robert Lewandowski mit insgesamt 14 Toren, von denen er 13 in der Qualifikation und eines bei der Endrunde erzielte.
Zum besten jungen Spieler wurde der jährige Portugiese Renato Sanches gekürt. In die Auswahl für diese Auszeichnung kamen alle Spieler, die Jahrgang oder jünger waren.
März wurde die komplette Liste der Schiedsrichterteams veröffentlicht. Jeder Schiedsrichter wurde von zwei Assistenten an der Seitenlinie und zwei Torrichtern unterstützt.
Hinzu kam ein dritter Assistent als Ersatz. Der Schiedsrichter Szymon Marciniak war ebenfalls nicht mehr für Spiele vorgesehen, verblieb aber mit seinem Ersten Assistenten als Ersatzreferee im Turnier.
Der Ball wurde von Adidas produziert und am November der Öffentlichkeit vorgestellt. Das offizielle Maskottchen wurde am Bei einer Internetabstimmung mit über November die Namen Goalix und Driblou.
Nach Beendigung der Abstimmung wurde der Name am Die Stimmen sollen über eine App eingespielt worden sein. Eine weitere Neuerung bestand darin, dass von Guetta der komplette EM-Soundtrack inklusive Torhymne und Einlaufmelodie beigesteuert wurde.
In der ersten Phase waren eine Million Tickets verfügbar, ohne die Gegner zu kennen. Das Bewerbungsverfahren für konkrete Begegnungen zweite Phase fand vom Dezember bis Aufgrund der erhöhten Nachfrage erfolgte eine Verlosung im Anschluss an diese Phase.
Die Gesamtzahl der Eintrittskarten belief sich in der zweiten Phase auf rund Mit diesem Ticketpaket konnten Fans jedes Spiel ihrer Mannschaft während des Turniers verfolgen, unabhängig davon, wie weit das Team in der K.
Bereits im Februar sicherten sich die beiden Fernsehanstalten die Übertragungsrechte für kolportierte Millionen Euro.
Dezember wurde bekannt, dass sich ProSiebenSat. Es handelte sich um Parallelspiele, die aus Wettbewerbsgründen gleichzeitig mit anderen Spielen ausgetragen werden.
Beide Sender hatten in Paris ein gemeinsames Studio, das sie jedoch unterschiedlich gestalteten. Für die ARD berichteten zwei Moderatorenteams: Dabei begaben sich Opdenhövel und Scholl als einzige in die Stadien vor Ort.
Gerhard Delling war als Mannschaftsreporter im Einsatz. Juni berichteten für Sat. Juni und forderten, alle relevanten und die Öffentlichkeit interessierenden Situationen aus den Stadien bereitgestellt zu bekommen.
Es handelte sich dabei, wie in Deutschland, um sechs Spiele des letzten Spieltages der Gruppenphase. Am Beispiel der Österreich-Gruppe F: Ein ähnliches Vorgehen gab es auch in den anderen Gruppen.
Dadurch entfielen Konferenzschaltungen, die durch die parallel verlaufenden Spiele notwendig gewesen wären. Kinder im Alter zwischen 6 und 10 Jahren konnten sich in unterschiedlichen nationalen Auswahlverfahren um die Auswahl als Einlaufkind bewerben.
Die Regularien sehen vor, dass jedes ausgewählte Kind von einem Erziehungsberechtigten begleitet wird. Die Leistungen des Sponsors umfassten eine dreitägige Reise zum Spielort, die Unterbringung im Doppelzimmer für zwei Nächte in einem Hotel , Verpflegung , Versicherungen , ein Rahmenprogramm für die Begleitperson und das Kind, mittelpreisige Eintrittskarten für das jeweilige Spiel, bei dem das Kind zum Einsatz kam, sowie ein Zertifikat über die Teilnahme an der Aktion.
Im Gegenzug musste das Kind an einer Generalprobe sowie am Einlauf vor dem eigentlichen Spiel teilnehmen und dabei für den Sponsor werben. Darüber hinaus gab es keine weiteren Verpflichtungen.
Die weiteren Trikotausrüster waren: Es wird in den Medien kontrovers diskutiert, beispielsweise dass das Album lange vor Festlegung der endgültigen Kader gedruckt wurde und damit teilweise nicht nominierte Spieler enthält.
Auch die möglicherweise hohen Kosten, das Album mit Bildern ohne Extrasticker zu vervollständigen, und die optimale Strategie für das sogenannte Sammelbilderproblem werden und wurden oft diskutiert.
Verschiedene Künstler gestalteten die Portraits. Ein allfälliger Gewinn kommt kulturellen Projekten zugute.
Bereits vor dem ersten Spieltag kam es in Marseille zu Krawallen zwischen englischen Hooligans mit Einheimischen und der Polizei. Bereits bei der Weltmeisterschaft in Frankreich hatte es dort gewalttätige Auseinandersetzungen zwischen englischen Hooligans und einheimischen Jugendlichen gegeben.
Schwere Ausschreitungen zwischen russischen und englischen Hooligans mit über 30 Verletzten,  darunter vier Schwerverletzte und eine Person in Lebensgefahr,  begleiteten die Spielpaarung zwischen England und Russland am Parlaments-Vizepräsident Igor Lebedew sagte jedoch, die russischen Hooligans hätten die Ehre Russlands verteidigt und sollten so weitermachen.
Zuvor hatten sie rechtsextreme Parolen gerufen und eine Reichskriegsflagge gezeigt. Juni Saint-Denis Endspiel Unterkünfte der 20 übrigen Mannschaften bei der Europameisterschaft.
B Wurden auch bei der WM in Brasilien eingesetzt. F Aus den einzelnen Begegnungen die Karten, wie in der Aufstellung des jeweiligen Spiels angegeben, summiert.
EM künftig mit 24 Teams. Juni , abgerufen am Februar , abgerufen am Mai , abgerufen am Grünes Licht für Bewerbungsverfahren Memento vom Juli im Webarchiv archive.
British Broadcasting Corporation , 2. März , abgerufen am Sabah , archiviert vom Original am Februar ; abgerufen am Januar , abgerufen am Dezember , abgerufen am France Football , archiviert vom Original am Mai ; abgerufen am Mai , archiviert vom Original am Juli ; abgerufen am Der Archivlink wurde automatisch eingesetzt und noch nicht geprüft.
Clovis made Paris his capital and established the Merovingian dynasty , but his kingdom would not survive his death. The Franks treated land purely as a private possession and divided it among their heirs, so four kingdoms emerged from Clovis's: The last Merovingian kings lost power to their mayors of the palace head of household.
One mayor of the palace, Charles Martel , defeated an Islamic invasion of Gaul at the Battle of Tours and earned respect and power within the Frankish kingdoms.
His son, Pepin the Short , seized the crown of Francia from the weakened Merovingians and founded the Carolingian dynasty.
Pepin's son, Charlemagne , reunited the Frankish kingdoms and built a vast empire across Western and Central Europe.
Charlemagne's son, Louis I Emperor — , kept the empire united; however, this Carolingian Empire would not survive his death. West Francia approximated the area occupied by, and was the precursor to, modern France.
During the 9th and 10th centuries, continually threatened by Viking invasions , France became a very decentralised state: Thus was established feudalism in France.
Over time, some of the king's vassals would grow so powerful that they often posed a threat to the king.
For example, after the Battle of Hastings in , William the Conqueror added "King of England" to his titles, becoming both the vassal to as Duke of Normandy and the equal of as king of England the king of France, creating recurring tensions.
The French nobility played a prominent role in most Crusades in order to restore Christian access to the Holy Land.
French knights made up the bulk of the steady flow of reinforcements throughout the two-hundred-year span of the Crusades, in such a fashion that the Arabs uniformly referred to the crusaders as Franj caring little whether they really came from France.
The latter, in particular, held numerous properties throughout France and by the 13th century were the principal bankers for the French crown, until Philip IV annihilated the order in The Albigensian Crusade was launched in to eliminate the heretical Cathars in the southwestern area of modern-day France.
In the end, the Cathars were exterminated and the autonomous County of Toulouse was annexed into the crown lands of France. Meanwhile, the royal authority became more and more assertive, centred on a hierarchically conceived society distinguishing nobility , clergy, and commoners.
Charles IV the Fair died without an heir in During the reign of Philip of Valois , the French monarchy reached the height of its medieval power.
With charismatic leaders, such as Joan of Arc and La Hire , strong French counterattacks won back English continental territories. Like the rest of Europe, France was struck by the Black Death; half of the 17 million population of France died.
The French Renaissance saw a spectacular cultural development and the first standardisation of the French language, which would become the official language of France and the language of Europe's aristocracy.
French explorers, such as Jacques Cartier or Samuel de Champlain , claimed lands in the Americas for France, paving the way for the expansion of the First French colonial empire.
The rise of Protestantism in Europe led France to a civil war known as the French Wars of Religion , where, in the most notorious incident, thousands of Huguenots were murdered in the St.
Bartholomew's Day massacre of Under Louis XIII , the energetic Cardinal Richelieu promoted the centralisation of the state and reinforced the royal power by disarming domestic power holders in the s.
He systematically destroyed castles of defiant lords and denounced the use of private violence dueling , carrying weapons, and maintaining private army.
By the end of s, Richelieu established "the royal monopoly of force" as the doctrine. The war cost France , casualties. This rebellion was driven by the great feudal lords and sovereign courts as a reaction to the rise of royal absolute power in France.
The monarchy reached its peak during the 17th century and the reign of Louis XIV. By turning powerful feudal lords into courtiers at the Palace of Versailles , Louis XIV's personal power became unchallenged.
Remembered for his numerous wars, he made France the leading European power. France became the most populous country in Europe and had tremendous influence over European politics, economy, and culture.
French became the most-used language in diplomacy, science, literature and international affairs, and remained so until the 20th century. Its European territory kept growing, however, with notable acquisitions such as Lorraine and Corsica An unpopular king, Louis XV's weak rule, his ill-advised financial, political and military decisions — as well as the debauchery of his court— discredited the monarchy, which arguably paved the way for the French Revolution 15 years after his death.
The financial crisis that followed France's involvement in the American Revolutionary War was one of many contributing factors to the French Revolution.
Much of the Enlightenment occurred in French intellectual circles, and major scientific breakthroughs and inventions, such as the discovery of oxygen and the first hot air balloon carrying passengers , were achieved by French scientists.
The Enlightenment philosophy, in which reason is advocated as the primary source for legitimacy and authority , undermined the power of and support for the monarchy and helped pave the way for the French Revolution.
As it came to an impasse, the representatives of the Third Estate formed into a National Assembly , signalling the outbreak of the French Revolution.
Fearing that the king would suppress the newly created National Assembly, insurgents stormed the Bastille on 14 July , a date which would become France's National Day.
In early August , the National Constituent Assembly abolished the privileges of the nobility such as personal serfdom and exclusive hunting rights.
Through the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen 27 August France established fundamental rights for men. The Declaration affirms "the natural and imprescriptible rights of man" to "liberty, property, security and resistance to oppression".
Freedom of speech and press were declared, and arbitrary arrests outlawed. It called for the destruction of aristocratic privileges and proclaimed freedom and equal rights for all men, as well as access to public office based on talent rather than birth.
In November , the Assembly decided to nationalize and sell all property of the Roman Catholic Church which had been the largest landowner in the country.
In July , a Civil Constitution of the Clergy reorganised the French Catholic Church, cancelling the authority of the Church to levy taxes, et cetera.
This fueled much discontent in parts of France, which would contribute to the civil war breaking out some years later. While King Louis XVI still enjoyed popularity among the population, his disastrous flight to Varennes June seemed to justify rumours he had tied his hopes of political salvation to the prospects of foreign invasion.
His credibility was so deeply undermined that the abolition of the monarchy and establishment of a republic became an increasing possibility. In August , the Emperor of Austria and the King of Prussia in the Declaration of Pillnitz threatened revolutionary France to intervene by force of arms to restore the French absolute monarchy.
In the newly established Legislative Assembly October , enmity developed and deepened between a group, later called the ' Girondins ', who favored war with Austria and Prussia , and a group later called ' Montagnards ' or ' Jacobins ', who opposed such a war.
A majority in the Assembly in however saw a war with Austria and Prussia as a chance to boost the popularity of the revolutionary government, and thought that France would win a war against those gathered monarchies.
On 20 April , therefore, they declared war on Austria. In early September, Parisians, infuriated by the Prussian army capturing Verdun and counter-revolutionary uprisings in the west of France, murdered between 1, and 1, prisoners by raiding the Parisian prisons.
The Assembly and the Paris city council seemed unable to stop that bloodshed. A factionalist feud in the National Convention, smoldering ever since October , came to a climax with the group of the ' Girondins ' on 2 June being forced to resign and leave the Convention.
Paris' Convention government between October and December with brutal measures managed to subdue most internal uprisings, at the cost of tens of thousands of lives.
Some historians consider the civil war to have lasted until with a toll of possibly , lives. Political disagreements and enmity in the National Convention between October and July reached unprecedented levels, leading to dozens of Convention members being sentenced to death and guillotined.
Meanwhile, France's external wars in were going prosperous, for example in Belgium. In , the government seemed to return to indifference towards the desires and needs of the lower classes concerning freedom of Catholic religion and fair distribution of food.
Until , politicians, apart from inventing a new parliamentary system the ' Directory ' , busied themselves with dissuading the people from Catholicism and from royalism.
Napoleon Bonaparte seized control of the Republic in becoming First Consul and later Emperor of the French Empire —; As a continuation of the wars sparked by the European monarchies against the French Republic, changing sets of European Coalitions declared wars on Napoleon's Empire.
His armies conquered most of continental Europe with swift victories such as the battles of Jena-Auerstadt or Austerlitz. Members of the Bonaparte family were appointed as monarchs in some of the newly established kingdoms.
After the catastrophic Russian campaign , and the ensuing uprising of European monarchies against his rule, Napoleon was defeated and the Bourbon monarchy restored.
About a million Frenchmen died during the Napoleonic Wars. The discredited Bourbon dynasty was overthrown by the July Revolution of , which established the constitutional July Monarchy.
In that year, French troops conquered Algeria , establishing the first colonial presence in Africa since Napoleon's abortive invasion of Egypt in According to historian Ben Kiernan , the French conquest and pacification of Algeria from until the early twentieth century slaughtered , Algerian people.
French losses from —51 were 92, dead in the hospital and only 3, killed in action. In general unrest led to the February Revolution and the end of the July Monarchy.
The abolition of slavery and male universal suffrage , both briefly enacted during the French Revolution were re-enacted in He multiplied French interventions abroad, especially in Crimea , in Mexico and Italy which resulted in the annexation of the duchy of Savoy and the county of Nice , then part of the Kingdom of Sardinia.
France had colonial possessions , in various forms, since the beginning of the 17th century, but in the 19th and 20th centuries, its global overseas colonial empire extended greatly and became the second largest in the world behind the British Empire.
Including metropolitan France , the total area of land under French sovereignty almost reached 13 million square kilometres in the s and s, 8.
In , state secularism was officially established. The French conquest of Morocco was one of the longest and toughest in the annals of European colonialism.
French historian Daniel Rivet puts the casualty rate among Moroccans who resisted the French occupation at , A small part of Northern France was occupied, but France and its allies emerged victorious against the Central Powers at a tremendous human and material cost.
World War I left 1. In , France was invaded and occupied by Nazi Germany. Metropolitan France was divided into a German occupation zone in the north and Vichy France , a newly established authoritarian regime collaborating with Germany , in the south, while Free France , the government-in-exile led by Charles de Gaulle , was set up in London.
This interim government, established by de Gaulle, aimed to continue to wage war against Germany and to purge collaborators from office.
It also made several important reforms suffrage extended to women, creation of a social security system. The GPRF laid the groundwork for a new constitutional order that resulted in the Fourth Republic , which saw spectacular economic growth les Trente Glorieuses.
France was one of the founding members of NATO More than 40, Algerian fell victim to the shooting and strafing, from planes, and armed cars.
Between March and September , the electoral victory of the proponents of independence in Madagascar was followed by a savage repression by the French army 18,, mostly Senegalese , troops , resulting in some 90, deaths.
Estimates of the number of Vietnamese military and civilian casualties during the war of independence from France range from , dead and , wounded to half a million dead and 1 million wounded.
Only months later, France faced another anti-colonialist conflict in Algeria. Torture and illegal executions were perpetrated by both sides and the debate over whether or not to keep control of Algeria , then home to over one million European settlers ,  wracked the country and nearly led to a coup and civil war.
Despite its military victory, France granted independence to Algerians. The war exacted a heavy human toll among the Algerian population.
It resulted in some , deaths and 2,, internally displaced Algerians. In the context of the Cold War , de Gaulle pursued a policy of "national independence" towards the Western and Eastern blocs.
To this end, he withdrew from NATO 's military integrated command, he launched a nuclear development programme and made France the fourth nuclear power.
He restored cordial Franco-German relations in order to create a European counterweight between the American and Soviet spheres of influence. However, he opposed any development of a supranational Europe , favouring a Europe of sovereign nations.
In the wake of the series of worldwide protests of , the revolt of May had an enormous social impact. In France, it is considered to be the watershed moment when a conservative moral ideal religion, patriotism, respect for authority shifted towards a more liberal moral ideal secularism , individualism , sexual revolution.
Although the revolt was a political failure as the Gaullist party emerged even stronger than before it announced a split between the French people and de Gaulle who resigned shortly after.
In the post-Gaullist era, France remained one of the most developed economies in the world , but faced several economic crises that resulted in high unemployment rates and increasing public debt.
In the late 20th and early 21st centuries France has been at the forefront of the development of a supranational European Union , notably by signing the Maastricht Treaty which created the European Union in , establishing the Eurozone in , and signing the Lisbon Treaty in Since the 19th century France has received many immigrants.
These have been mostly male foreign workers from European Catholic countries who generally returned home when not employed. It resulted in hundreds of thousands of Muslims especially in the larger cities living in subsidised public housing and suffering from very high unemployment rates.
They were encouraged to retain their distinctive cultures and traditions and required merely to integrate.
The vast majority of France's territory and population is situated in Western Europe and is called Metropolitan France , to distinguish it from the country's various overseas polities.
It is bordered by the North Sea in the north, the English Channel in the northwest, the Atlantic Ocean in the west and the Mediterranean sea in the southeast.
It land borders consist of Belgium and Luxembourg in the northeast, Germany and Switzerland in the east, Italy and Monaco in the southeast, and Andorra and Spain in the south and southwest.
With the exception of the northeast, most of France's land borders are roughly delineated by natural boundaries and geographic features: Due to its shape, France is often referred to as l'Hexagone "The Hexagon ".
Metropolitan France includes various coastal islands, of which the largest is Corsica. France has several overseas regions across the world, which are organised along different:.
France possesses a wide variety of landscapes, from coastal plains in the north and west to mountain ranges of the Alps in the southeast, the Massif Central in the south central and Pyrenees in the southwest.
Metropolitan France has a wide variety of topographical sets and natural landscapes. Large parts of the current territory of France were raised during several tectonic episodes like the Hercynian uplift in the Paleozoic Era, during which the Armorican Massif , the Massif Central , the Morvan , the Vosges and Ardennes ranges and the island of Corsica were formed.
These massifs delineate several sedimentary basins such as the Aquitaine basin in the southwest and the Paris basin in the north, the latter including several areas of particularly fertile ground such as the silt beds of Beauce and Brie.
The Alpine, Pyrenean and Jura mountains are much younger and have less eroded forms. The coastlines offer contrasting landscapes: Corsica lies off the Mediterranean coast.
Other water courses drain towards the Meuse and Rhine along the north-eastern borders. Most of the low-lying areas of metropolitan France are located in the oceanic climate zone, Cfb and Cfc in the Köppen classification.
Corsica and a small part of the territory bordering the mediterranean basin lies in the Csa and Csb zones.
As the French metropolitan territory is relatively large, the climate is not uniform, giving rise to the following climate nuances:.
France was one of the first countries to create an environment ministry, in The parks foster ecological research programmes and public education in the natural sciences.
According to the Environmental Performance Index conducted by Yale and Columbia , France was the tenth-most environmentally-conscious country in the world.
The French Republic is divided into 18 regions located in Europe and overseas , five overseas collectivities , one overseas territory , one special collectivity — New Caledonia and one uninhabited island directly under the authority of the Minister of Overseas France — Clipperton.
Since France is mainly divided into 18 administrative regions: This number is used in postal codes and was formerly used on vehicle number plates.
The departments are subdivided into arrondissements , which are, in turn, subdivided into 2, cantons. The regions, departments and communes are all known as territorial collectivities , meaning they possess local assemblies as well as an executive.
Arrondissements and cantons are merely administrative divisions. However, this was not always the case. Until , the arrondissements were territorial collectivities with an elected assembly, but these were suspended by the Vichy regime and definitely abolished by the Fourth Republic in Overseas collectivities and territories form part of the French Republic, but do not form part of the European Union or its fiscal area with the exception of St.
Bartelemy, which seceded from Guadeloupe in In contrast, the five overseas regions used the French franc and now use the euro. The French Republic is a unitary semi-presidential representative democratic republic with strong democratic traditions.
The executive branch itself has two leaders: Senators are chosen by an electoral college for 6-year terms originally 9-year terms , and one half of the seats are submitted to election every 3 years starting in September The Senate's legislative powers are limited; in the event of disagreement between the two chambers, the National Assembly has the final say.
Since World War II, they were marginalized while French politics became characterised by two politically opposed groupings: In the presidential and legislative elections, radical centrist party En Marche!
France uses a civil legal system;  that is, law arises primarily from written statutes; judges are not to make law, but merely to interpret it though the amount of judicial interpretation in certain areas makes it equivalent to case law.
Basic principles of the rule of law were laid in the Napoleonic Code which was, in turn, largely based on the royal law codified under Louis XIV. In agreement with the principles of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, law should only prohibit actions detrimental to society.
As Guy Canivet , first president of the Court of Cassation , wrote about the management of prisons: Freedom is the rule, and its restriction is the exception; any restriction of Freedom must be provided for by Law and must follow the principles of necessity and proportionality.
That is, Law should lay out prohibitions only if they are needed, and if the inconveniences caused by this restriction do not exceed the inconveniences that the prohibition is supposed to remedy.
French law is divided into two principal areas: Private law includes, in particular, civil law and criminal law.
Public law includes, in particular, administrative law and constitutional law. However, in practical terms, French law comprises three principal areas of law: Criminal laws can only address the future and not the past criminal ex post facto laws are prohibited.
France does not recognise religious law as a motivation for the enactment of prohibitions. France has long had neither blasphemy laws nor sodomy laws the latter being abolished in Since , civil unions for homosexual couples are permitted, and since May , same-sex marriage and LGBT adoption are legal in France.
Some consider however that hate speech laws in France are too broad or severe and damage freedom of speech. Freedom of religion is constitutionally guaranteed by the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen.
Nonetheless, it does recognize religious associations. The Parliament has listed many religious movements as dangerous cults since , and has banned wearing conspicuous religious symbols in schools since In , it banned the wearing of face-covering Islamic veils in public ; human rights groups such as Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch described the law as discriminatory towards Muslims.
France is a founding member of the United Nations and serves as one of the permanent members of the UN Security Council with veto rights.
Postwar French foreign policy has been largely shaped by membership of the European Union, of which it was a founding member. Since the s , France has developed close ties with reunified Germany to become the most influential driving force of the EU.
However, since , France has maintained an " Entente cordiale " with the United Kingdom , and there has been a strengthening of links between the countries, especially militarily.
France is a member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation NATO , but under President de Gaulle, it excluded itself from the joint military command to protest the special relationship between the United States and Britain and to preserve the independence of French foreign and security policies.
However, as a result of Nicolas Sarkozy's pro-American politics much criticised in France by the leftists and by a part of the right , France rejoined the NATO joint military command on 4 April In the early s, the country drew considerable criticism from other nations for its underground nuclear tests in French Polynesia.
In , France was the fourth-largest in absolute terms donor of development aid in the world, behind the United States, the United Kingdom and Germany.
Together they are among the largest armed forces in the world and the largest in the EU. While the Gendarmerie is an integral part of the French armed forces gendarmes are career soldiers , and therefore under the purview of the Ministry of the Armed Forces , it is operationally attached to the Ministry of the Interior as far as its civil police duties are concerned.
When acting as general purpose police force, the Gendarmerie encompasses the counter terrorist units of the Parachute Intervention Squadron of the National Gendarmerie Escadron Parachutiste d'Intervention de la Gendarmerie Nationale , the National Gendarmerie Intervention Group Groupe d'Intervention de la Gendarmerie Nationale , the Search Sections of the National Gendarmerie Sections de Recherche de la Gendarmerie Nationale , responsible for criminal enquiries, and the Mobile Brigades of the National Gendarmerie Brigades mobiles de la Gendarmerie Nationale , or in short Gendarmerie mobile which have the task to maintain public order.
The following special units are also part of the Gendarmerie: There has been no national conscription since France has a special military corps, the French Foreign Legion , founded in , which consists of foreign nationals from over countries who are willing to serve in the French Armed Forces and become French citizens after the end of their service period.
The only other countries having similar units are Spain the Spanish Foreign Legion, called Tercio , was founded in and Luxembourg foreigners can serve in the National Army provided they speak Luxembourgish.
France is a permanent member of the Security Council of the UN , and a recognised nuclear state since French nuclear deterrence, formerly known as " Force de Frappe " , relies on complete independence.
The current French nuclear force consists of four Triomphant class submarines equipped with submarine-launched ballistic missiles. France has major military industries with one of the largest aerospace industries in the world.
France is a major arms seller,   with most of its arsenal's designs available for the export market with the notable exception of nuclear-powered devices.
Other smaller parades are organised across the country. The Government of France has run a budget deficit each year since the early s.
As of [update] , French government debt levels reached 2. A member of the Group of Seven formerly Group of Eight leading industrialised countries, as of [update] , it is ranked as the world's ninth largest and the EU's second largest economy by purchasing power parity.
France has a mixed economy that combines extensive private enterprise   with substantial state enterprise and government intervention. The government retains considerable influence over key segments of infrastructure sectors, with majority ownership of railway, electricity, aircraft, nuclear power and telecommunications.
As of [update] , the World Trade Organization WTO reported France was the world's sixth largest exporter and the fourth largest importer of manufactured goods.
Financial services, banking and the insurance sector are an important part of the economy. The Paris stock exchange French: France is a member of the Eurozone around million consumers which is part of the European Single Market more than million consumers.
Several domestic commercial policies are determined by agreements among European Union EU members and by EU legislation.
France introduced the common European currency, the Euro in French companies have maintained key positions in the insurance and banking industries: AXA is the world's largest insurance company.
France has historically been a large producer of agricultural products. Wheat, poultry, dairy, beef, and pork, as well as internationally recognised processed foods are the primary French agricultural exports.
Agriculture is an important sector of France's economy: It is third in income from tourism due to shorter duration of visits.
France, especially Paris, has some of the world's largest and renowned museums, including the Louvre , which is the most visited art museum in the world 5.
Disneyland Paris is Europe's most popular theme park, with 15 million combined visitors to the resort's Disneyland Park and Walt Disney Studios Park in With more than 10 millions tourists a year, the French Riviera French: With 6 millions tourists a year, the castles of the Loire Valley French: France has 37 sites inscribed in UNESCO's World Heritage List and features cities of high cultural interest, beaches and seaside resorts, ski resorts, and rural regions that many enjoy for their beauty and tranquillity green tourism.
The " Remarkable Gardens " label is a list of the over gardens classified by the French Ministry of Culture. This label is intended to protect and promote remarkable gardens and parks.
France attracts many religious pilgrims on their way to St. France is the smallest emitter of carbon dioxide among the G8 , due to its heavy investment in nuclear power.
Rail connections exist to all other neighbouring countries in Europe, except Andorra. French roads also handle substantial international traffic, connecting with cities in neighbouring Belgium, Luxembourg, Germany, Switzerland, Italy, Spain, Andorra and Monaco.
There is no annual registration fee or road tax ; however, usage of the mostly privately owned motorways is through tolls except in the vicinity of large communes.
There are airports in France. Air France is the national carrier airline, although numerous private airline companies provide domestic and international travel services.
There are ten major ports in France, the largest of which is in Marseille ,  which also is the largest bordering the Mediterranean Sea.
Since the Middle Ages , France has been a major contributor to scientific and technological achievement. Around the beginning of the 11th century, Pope Sylvester II , born Gerbert d'Aurillac, reintroduced the abacus and armillary sphere , and introduced Arabic numerals and clocks to Northern and Western Europe.
They were both key figures of the Scientific revolution , which blossomed in Europe during this period. It was at the forefront of scientific developments in Europe in the 17th and 18th centuries.
It is one of the earliest academies of sciences. Other eminent French scientists of the 19th century have their names inscribed on the Eiffel Tower.
Hand transplantation was developed on 23 September in Lyon by a team assembled from different countries around the world including Jean-Michel Dubernard who, shortly thereafter, performed the first successful double hand transplant.
France was the fourth country to achieve nuclear capability  and has the third largest nuclear weapons arsenal in the world.
It also owns Minatec , Europe's leading nanotechnology research center. The TGV has been the fastest wheeled train in commercial use since reaching a speed of As of [update] , 69 French people have been awarded a Nobel Prize  and 12 have received the Fields Medal.
With an estimated total population of France is also second most populous country in the European Union after Germany.
France is an outlier among developed countries in general, and European countries in particular, in having a fairly high rate of natural population growth: This was the highest rate since the end of the baby boom in , and coincides with the rise of the total fertility rate from a nadir of 1.
As of January [update] the fertility rate was 1. Large-scale immigration over the last century and a half has led to a more multicultural society.
A law originating from the revolution and reaffirmed in the French Constitution makes it illegal for the French state to collect data on ethnicity and ancestry.
There are also sizeable minorities of other European ethnic groups , namely Spanish , Portuguese , Polish , and Greek.
France has a significant Gypsy Gitan population, numbering between 20, and , France remains a major destination for immigrants, accepting about , legal immigrants annually.
Thus, nearly a fifth of the country's population were either first or second-generation immigrants, of which more than 5 million were of European origin and 4 million of Maghrebi ancestry.
According to the French Institute, this increase resulting from the financial crisis that hit several European countries in that period, has pushed up the number of Europeans installed in France.
France is a highly urbanized country, with its largest cities in terms of metropolitan area population in  being Paris 12,, inh.
There are significant differences between the metropolitan population figures just cited and those in the following table, which only include the core population.
Rural flight was a perennial political issue throughout most of the 20th century. According to Article 2 of the Constitution, the official language of France is French,  a Romance language derived from Latin.
The French government does not regulate the choice of language in publications by individuals but the use of French is required by law in commercial and workplace communications.
In addition to mandating the use of French in the territory of the Republic, the French government tries to promote French in the European Union and globally through institutions such as La Francophonie.
The perceived threat from anglicisation has prompted efforts to safeguard the position of the French language in France. Besides French, there exist 77 vernacular minority languages of France, eight spoken in French metropolitan territory and 69 in the French overseas territories.
From the 17th to the midth century, French served as the pre-eminent international language of diplomacy and international affairs as well as a lingua franca among the educated classes of Europe.
For most of the time in which French served as an international lingua franca, it was not the native language of most Frenchmen: As a result of France's extensive colonial ambitions between the 17th and 20th centuries, French was introduced to the Americas, Africa, Polynesia, South-East Asia, and the Caribbean.
French is the second most studied foreign language in the world after English,  and is a lingua franca in some regions, notably in Africa.
The legacy of French as a living language outside Europe is mixed: On the other hand, many former French colonies have adopted French as an official language, and the total number of French speakers is increasing, especially in Africa.
It is estimated that between million  and million  people worldwide can speak French, either as a mother tongue or a second language.
According to the Adult Education survey, part of a project by the European Union and carried in France by the Insee and based on a sample of 15, persons, French was the first mother tongue of People who had other languages as their mother tongue made up the 5.
Religion in France . France is a secular country, and freedom of religion is a constitutional right. Catholicism has been the predominant religion in France for more than a millennium, though it is not as actively practised today as it was.
In some cases clergy and churches were attacked, with iconoclasm stripping the churches of statues and ornament.
It recognises religious organisations according to formal legal criteria that do not address religious doctrine. Conversely, religious organisations are expected to refrain from intervening in policy-making.
Secte is considered a pejorative term in France. The French health care system is one of universal health care largely financed by government national health insurance.
In its assessment of world health care systems, the World Health Organization found that France provided the "close to best overall health care" in the world.
Average life expectancy at birth is 78 years for men and 85 years for women, one of the highest of the European Union and the World.
Even if the French have the reputation of being one of the thinnest people in developed countries,       France—like other rich countries—faces an increasing and recent epidemic of obesity , due mostly to the replacement in French eating habits of traditional healthy French cuisine by junk food.
Rates of childhood obesity are slowing in France, while continuing to grow in other countries. Nowadays, the schooling system in France is centralised, and is composed of three stages, primary education, secondary education, and higher education.
In France, education is compulsory from six to sixteen years old, and the public school is secular and free. While training and remuneration of teachers and the curriculum are the responsibility of the state centrally, the management of primary and secondary schools is overseen by local authorities.
Nursery school aims to stimulate the minds of very young children and promote their socialisation and development of a basic grasp of language and number.
Around the age of six, children transfer to elementary school, whose primary objectives are learning about writing, arithmetic and citizenship.
Secondary education also consists of two phases. Health insurance for students is free until the age of France has been a centre of Western cultural development for centuries.
Many French artists have been among the most renowned of their time, and France is still recognised in the world for its rich cultural tradition.
The successive political regimes have always promoted artistic creation, and the creation of the Ministry of Culture in helped preserve the cultural heritage of the country and make it available to the public.
The Ministry of Culture has been very active since its creation, granting subsidies to artists, promoting French culture in the world, supporting festivals and cultural events, protecting historical monuments.
The French government also succeeded in maintaining a cultural exception to defend audiovisual products made in the country. France receives the highest number of tourists per year, largely thanks to the numerous cultural establishments and historical buildings implanted all over the territory.
The 43, buildings protected as historical monuments include mainly residences many castles and religious buildings cathedrals , basilicas , churches , but also statutes, memorials and gardens.
The origins of French art were very much influenced by Flemish art and by Italian art at the time of the Renaissance. Jean Fouquet , the most famous medieval French painter, is said to have been the first to travel to Italy and experience the Early Renaissance at first hand.
The Renaissance painting School of Fontainebleau was directly inspired by Italian painters such as Primaticcio and Rosso Fiorentino , who both worked in France.
The 17th century was the period when French painting became prominent and individualised itself through classicism.
In the second part of the 19th century, France's influence over painting became even more important, with the development of new styles of painting such as Impressionism and Symbolism.
Many museums in France are entirely or partly devoted to sculptures and painting works. During the Middle Ages, many fortified castles were built by feudal nobles to mark their powers.
During this era, France had been using Romanesque architecture like most of Western Europe. Some of the greatest examples of Romanesque churches in France are the Saint Sernin Basilica in Toulouse , the largest romanesque church in Europe,  and the remains of the Cluniac Abbey.
The kings were crowned in another important Gothic church: The final victory in the Hundred Years' War marked an important stage in the evolution of French architecture.
Following the renaissance and the end of the Middle Ages, Baroque architecture replaced the traditional Gothic style. However, in France, baroque architecture found a greater success in the secular domain than in a religious one.
Jules Hardouin Mansart , who designed the extensions to Versailles, was one of the most influential French architect of the baroque era; he is famous for his dome at Les Invalides.
On the military architectural side, Vauban designed some of the most efficient fortresses in Europe and became an influential military architect; as a result, imitations of his works can be found all over Europe, the Americas, Russia and Turkey.
After the Revolution, the Republicans favoured Neoclassicism although neoclassicism was introduced in France prior to the revolution with such building as the Parisian Pantheon or the Capitole de Toulouse.
Under Napoleon III , a new wave of urbanism and architecture was given birth; extravagant buildings such as the neo-baroque Palais Garnier were built.
The urban planning of the time was very organised and rigorous; for example, Haussmann's renovation of Paris. The architecture associated to this era is named Second Empire in English, the term being taken from the Second French Empire.
In the late 19th century, Gustave Eiffel designed many bridges, such as Garabit viaduct , and remains one of the most influential bridge designers of his time, although he is best remembered for the iconic Eiffel Tower.
More recently, French architects have combined both modern and old architectural styles. The Louvre Pyramid is an example of modern architecture added to an older building.
The most difficult buildings to integrate within French cities are skyscrapers, as they are visible from afar.
For instance, in Paris, since , new buildings had to be under 37 meters feet. The earliest French literature dates from the Middle Ages , when what is now known as modern France did not have a single, uniform language.
There were several languages and dialects and writers used their own spelling and grammar. Much medieval French poetry and literature were inspired by the legends of the Matter of France , such as The Song of Roland and the various chansons de geste.
The Roman de Renart , written in by Perrout de Saint Cloude, tells the story of the mediaeval character Reynard 'the Fox' and is another example of early French writing.
Michel de Montaigne was the other major figure of the French literature during that century. His most famous work, Essais , created the literary genre of the essay.
Generations of French pupils had to learn his fables, that were seen as helping teaching wisdom and common sense to the young people. French literature and poetry flourished even more in the 18th and 19th centuries.
During that same century, Charles Perrault was a prolific writer of famous children's fairy tales including Puss in Boots , Cinderella , Sleeping Beauty and Bluebeard.
The 19th century saw the writings of many renowned French authors. Victor Hugo is sometimes seen as "the greatest French writer of all times"  for excelling in all literary genres.
The preface of his play Cromwell is considered to be the manifesto of the Romantic movement. The Prix Goncourt is a French literary prize first awarded in Medieval philosophy was dominated by Scholasticism until the emergence of Humanism in the Renaissance.
Descartes revitalised Western philosophy , which had been declined after the Greek and Roman eras. French philosophers produced some of the most important political works of the Age of Enlightenment.
In The Spirit of the Laws , Baron de Montesquieu theorised the principle of separation of powers , which has been implemented in all liberal democracies since it was first applied in the United States.
Voltaire came to embody the Enlightenment with his defence of civil liberties, such as the right to a free trial and freedom of religion. In the 20th century, partly as a reaction to the perceived excesses of positivism, French spiritualism thrived with thinkers such as Henri Bergson and it influenced American pragmatism and Whitehead 's version of process philosophy.
France has a long and varied musical history. It experienced a golden age in the 17th century thanks to Louis XIV, who employed a number of talented musicians and composers in the royal court.
After the death of the "Roi Soleil", French musical creation lost dynamism, but in the next century the music of Jean-Philippe Rameau reached some prestige, and today he is still one of the most renowned French composers.
Rameau became the dominant composer of French opera and the leading French composer for the harpsichord.
French composers played an important role during the music of the 19th and early 20th century, which is considered to be the Romantic music era.
Romantic music emphasised a surrender to nature, a fascination with the past and the supernatural, the exploration of unusual, strange and surprising sounds, and a focus on national identity.
This period was also a golden age for operas. French composers from the Romantic era included: Later came precursors of modern classical music.
Maurice Ravel and Claude Debussy are the most prominent figures associated with Impressionist music.
Debussy was among the most influential composers of the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and his use of non-traditional scales and chromaticism influenced many composers who followed.
The two composers invented new musical forms     and new sounds. Ravel's piano compositions, such as Jeux d'eau , Miroirs , Le tombeau de Couperin and Gaspard de la nuit , demand considerable virtuosity.
More recently, the middle of the 20th century, Maurice Ohana , Pierre Schaeffer and Pierre Boulez contributed to the evolutions of contemporary classical music.
French music then followed the rapid emergence of pop and rock music at the middle of the 20th century.
In the s and s decade , electronic duos Daft Punk , Justice and Air also reached worldwide popularity and contributed to the reputation of modern electronic music in the world.
Among current musical events and institutions in France, many are dedicated to classical music and operas.
It is noted for having a strong film industry, due in part to protections afforded by the French government. France remains a leader in filmmaking, as of [update] producing more films than any other European country.
Apart from its strong and innovative film tradition, France has also been a gathering spot for artists from across Europe and the world.
For this reason, French cinema is sometimes intertwined with the cinema of foreign nations. Conversely, French directors have had prolific and influential careers in other countries, such as Luc Besson , Jacques Tourneur , or Francis Veber in the United States.
Until recently, France had for centuries been the cultural center of the world,  although its dominant position has been surpassed by the United States.
Subsequently, France takes steps in protecting and promoting its culture, becoming a leading advocate of the cultural exception.
S and Israel, voted against it. Fashion has been an important industry and cultural export of France since the 17th century, and modern "haute couture" originated in Paris in the s.
Today, Paris, along with London, Milan, and New York City, is considered one of the world's fashion capitals, and the city is home or headquarters to many of the premier fashion houses.
The expression Haute couture is, in France, a legally protected name, guaranteeing certain quality standards. The association of France with fashion and style French: But France renewed its dominance of the high fashion French: The French perfume industry is world leader in its sector and is centered on the town of Grasse.
In the s, the elitist "Haute couture" came under criticism from France's youth culture. The s saw a conglomeration of many French couture houses under luxury giants and multinationals such as LVMH.
The most influential news magazines are the left-wing Le Nouvel Observateur , centrist L'Express and right-wing Le Point more than Like in most industrialised nations, the print media have been affected by a severe crisis in the past decade.
In , the government launched a major initiative to help the sector reform and become financially independent,   but in it had to give , euros to help the print media cope with the economic crisis , in addition to existing subsidies.
In , after years of centralised monopoly on radio and television, the governmental agency ORTF was split into several national institutions, but the three already-existing TV channels and four national radio stations   remained under state-control.
It was only in that the government allowed free broadcasting in the territory, ending state monopoly on radio.
In , the government created global news channel France According to a BBC poll in , based on 29, responses in 28 countries, France is globally seen as a positive influence in the world's affairs: According to a poll in , the French were found to have the highest level of religious tolerance and to be the country where the highest proportion of the population defines its identity primarily in term of nationality and not religion.
The French Revolution continues to permeate the country's collective memory. In addition, Bastille Day , the national holiday, commemorates the storming of the Bastille on 14 July A common and traditional symbol of the French people is the Gallic rooster.
Its origins date back to Antiquity, since the Latin word Gallus meant both " rooster " and "inhabitant of Gaul". Then this figure gradually became the most widely shared representation of the French, used by French monarchs, then by the Revolution and under the successive republican regimes as representation of the national identity, used for some stamps and coins.
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